What is Geoinformatics?
Geoinformatics is a scientific field that studies the theory, technics and methods of accumulating, processing and transmitting data, information and knowledge using computers and other technical means, or a group of disciplines dealing with different aspects of the application and development of computers. According to gis definition, this discipline usually includes applied mathematics, programming, software, artificial intelligence, computer architectures and computer networks.
Technologically, historically and “genetically” geoinformatics has been formed and continues to develop, surrounded by related sciences and technologies related to it objectively and methodically.
Algorithms and methods of geoinformatics are close to computational geometry and computer (machine) graphics, computer-aided design systems. As definition of gis said, the non-positional (attributive) part of spatial data was traditionally stored and managed by means of database management systems (DBMS), the methodology for creating GIS databases continues to be among the important tasks in their design. A single digital living environment combines GIS with global positioning systems and automated (digital) technologies for surveying the terrain (for example, using electronic total stations or laser scanning devices) and their processing systems (for example, using digital photogrammetry methods). Finally, the hardware environment for the implementation of geoinformation technologies – the so-called computing equipment, namely computers with peripheral devices for input, storage and output of data – involves the latest information, including telecommunication, technologies studied by general informatics in the orbit of interests and conditions of the geoinformatics existence.
The subject of studying geoinformatics is, in the general case, the Earth, which is caused by the Earth sciences related to GIS, and in particular, geographic information systems (GIS). The methodological apparatus of geoinformatics is a methodology based on spatial data models and a methodology for designing and creating GIS.
Geoinformatics is a science that studies all aspects of the collection, processing and presentation of information about the properties of objects, processes and phenomena occurring on the planet.
The main parts of geoinformatics are:
- general geoinformatics. It is a branch of geoinformatics engaged in the research and development of scientific foundations, concepts, a generalized analysis of geoinformation systems regardless of their applied nature.;
- applied geo-information. It studies practical methods of working with geographic information systems and geographic information technologies.;
- special geoinformatics. It serves as the basis for the analysis of systems and methods for processing spatial data.
The theory of geoinformatics as a doctrine of GIS is based on several basic concepts. These include the concepts of a spatial object, spatial data, spatial data models, processing functions, including the basic functions of spatial analysis and geomodeling as the GIS core.
Due to the strength of relationship, the level of interaction, methodological and technological proximity and integration opportunities, the closest environment of geoinformatics is cartography and remote (aerospace) sounding.
- Analysis: statistical, economic, spatial, transport, network analysis.
- Management: state, regional, municipal, industry.
- Monitoring: military intelligence, environmental monitoring, analysis of emergency events, etc.
- Business applications: geomarketing, logistics, real estate activities, etc.
What led to the appearance of geoinformatics?
- Widespread distribution of computers and improvement of peripheral tools;
- Accumulation of extensive aerospace, other statistical materials;
- The need to streamline information in databases for a variety of purposes;
- Ensuring the safety and accessibility of these materials, wide circle of users;
- The need for operational decision making, etc.